Quiz on government institutions & key topic 1.3 Repression


Here is the link to the Kahoot quiz on central and local government:

Y318: Government institutions

Here are the resources on Methods of Repression and Enforcement:

1.3 cover sheet


Tasks to complete for next lesson:

Comment on previous post regarding changes/similarities in central/local government.

A3 Timeline on either: army, secret police, propaganda, censorship




  1. Methods of repression used by the tsars and he communist leaders:

    Overall, the methods used by those of the tsars was very similar to those of the communist leaders in that for repression and reinforcement.

    The first of these was the use of the army in order to oppress the people. The tsars used the army in order to protect themselves and fight against people who would rise up against them, such as in the Crimean war 1,400,000 mainly peasant conscripts from Russia were forced to fight. Between 1905-17 with Nich II, troops were used to dismantle strikes by the Bolsheviks but many turned to desertion, such as in the case of 150,000 of the Petrograd garrison who supported the revolution. During the October 17 revolution, the army were used as an intimidation tactic in order to take over public buildings and transport systems. Despite a military failure with the mutiny of sailors in 1921, 50,000 troops were sent by Lenin to recapture the island of Kronstadt to secure their position. The military was refined by Stalin during 1936-8 to get rid of 40% of the to officers in order to have the successes at Stalingrad and Moscow. After this during the years of Khrushchev, the army was used more for external international affairs, having been reduced from 3.6 million reds to just the 2.4 million most reliable, such as in the Hungarian Uprising of 1956.

    Propaganda was overall used in a very similar way by the tsars and Communist leaders. For example, the tsars often promoted celebrations, such as the 300 year Romanov empire anniversary. The Bolsheviks used it too to promote slogans such as ‘Peace, bread and land,’ and ‘All power to the soviets,’ from 1905-17 in order to gain support and take over in the October revolution. The Stakhanovite cult of personality was introduced via the communists in order to increase conformity of the hard working type of person, as with the pioneers in he komsomol to encourage young people to dob in their parents on if they had any non communist ideals. Whereas the tsars used their propaganda to promote themselves, the communists used it to indoctrinate the people against opposition as a whole.

    The secret police was used by all of he Russian leaders but less so by the Tsars because they appeared to be more lenient on their people. The communist leaders however had a lot more revolutionary changes in how the secret police were used, most famously with Lenin sending political opposition to Gulag, or concentration camps, being used both internally and externally in spheres of influence to maintain control.

    Censorship was where we saw the most difference between the tsars and the communist leaders. Alex II pursued a policy of glasnost way ahead of his time with openness and 1020 books published and 140 periodicals, even allowing a Marxist book ‘Das Capital’ to be released in 1871. Alex III however, censored material before it was published but even still 10,961 books and 89 newspapers in 1894. The proletariat newspaper was still introduced in 1894 under Nich II, the Kopek with 25,000 papers in circulation. After the takeover of the October Revolution by the Bolsheviks in 1917, there was troop propaganda for the ww1 and ww2 army under Stolypin and the Bolsheviks completely abolished the freedom of press to supress any counter revolution, very different from that of the tsars which still allowed an element of freedom of information, especially with the communist soviet union of writers being introduced in 1932 which was introduced to publish communist approved books alone. Therefore this was the largest source of change between the communists and the tsars was their use of censorship to not allow the people to think about other ideals and takeover once in power, as a lac of this with the tsars allowed the Bolshevik takeover to take place and the extreme use of which allowed the communists to stay in power for so long.


  2. The Tzara employed many methods of oppression of which evolved with time while their economical system seemingly stood still through the Tzars rules. The secret police were used to oppress and imprison any forms of rebellions or defiants of whom disobey their oppressors doctrines. Peaceful public strikes and displays were transformed into bloody battle grounds containing the mass slaughter of innocent civilians whilst implementing fear into their subjects in order to maintain control.

    Censorship was also heavily used, limiting the media exposed to the public only showing the tsar and there rule in positive lights pushing any dark actions into the shadows. By not allowing the mass media to have their own freedom the majority of the public thought the empire were unaware of their sole rulers actions and intentions due to this method of control.


  3. The Tsars employed multiple forms of repression. Perhaps the most effective form of oppression was the use of The Secret police, whilst they changed names and identities over the year, all employed the same tactics and has the same aims: removal of opposition. There was however other more subtle techniques in removing opposition, such as censorship, by influencing what the people consumed it was able to repress the ideas of revolting Agaisnt the autocratic state.

    Communism implimated much of the same repressive systems as the Tsars, the use of concentration camps mixed with the use of the Secret Police provided a strong stable leadership in order to stop opposition


  4. Methods of repression used by the Tsars and the communist leaders:
    The Tsars and the communist leader used 4 main methods of oppression to stay in power. These where propaganda, the secret police, the red army, and censorship.

    The Tsar’s mainly used propaganda to influence their rule over Russia such as the 200 year celebration of the Romanov families reign. They also used the Red Army to try and keep the piece between the people. The Tsars did use the secret police however, they weren’t used as much then as they where under Stalin’s reign.

    The communists used censorship to cover over any information which caused the USSR to look bad. This meant that they could block all anti-communist propaganda from spreading around the USSR. The communist leaders also used the Red Army to remove all revolutionary movements for the opposition


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